Discrete Ranking-based Matrix Factorization with Self-Paced Learning
Yan Zhang (University of Science and Technology of China); Haoyu Wang (University of Science and Technology of China); Defu Lian (University of Science and Technology of China); Ivor W. Tsang (University of Technology, Sydney); Hongzhi Yin (The University of Queensland); Guowu Yang (University of Science and Technology of China)
The efficiency of top-k recommendation is vital to large-scale recommender systems. Hashing is not only an efficient alternative but also complementary to distributed computing, and also a practical and effective option in a computing environment with limited resources. Hashing techniques improve the efficiency of online recommendation by representing users and items by binary codes. However, objective functions of existing methods are not consistent with ultimate goals of recommender systems, and are often optimized via discrete coordinate descent, easily getting stuck in a local optimum. To this end, we propose a Discrete Ranking-based Matrix Factorization (DRMF) algorithm based on each user’s pairwise preferences, and formulate it into binary quadratic programming problems to learn binary codes. Due to non-convexity and binary constraints, we further propose self-paced learning for improving the optimization, to include pairwise preferences gradually from easy to complex. We finally evaluate the proposed algorithm on three public real-world datasets, and show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art hashing-based recommendation algorithms, and even achieves comparable performance to matrix factorization methods.