The Role of “Condition”: A Novel Scientific Knowledge Graph Representation and Construction Model
Tianwen Jiang (University of Notre Dame);Tong Zhao (University of Notre Dame);Bing Qin (Harbin Institute of Technology);Ting Liu (Harbin Institute of Technology);Nitesh Chawla (University of Notre Dame);Meng Jiang (University of Notre Dame);
Conditions play an essential role in scientific observations, hypotheses, and statements. Unfortunately, existing scientific knowledge graphs (SciKGs) represent factual knowledge as a flat relational network of concepts, as same as the KGs in general domain, without considering the conditions of the facts being valid, which loses important contexts for inference and exploration. In this work, we propose a novel representation of SciKG, which has three layers. The first layer has concept nodes, attribute nodes, as well as the attaching links from attribute to concept. The second layer represents both fact tuples and condition tuples. Each tuple is a node of the relation name, connecting to the subject and object that are concept or attribute nodes in the first layer. The third layer has nodes of statement sentences traceable to the original paper and authors. Each statement node connects to a set of fact tuples and/or condition tuples in the second layer. We design a semi-supervised Multi-Input Multi-Output sequence labeling model that learns complex dependencies between the sequence tags from multiple signals and generates output sequences for fact and condition tuples. It has a self-training module of multiple strategies to leverage the massive scientific data for better performance when manual annotation is limited. Experiments on a data set of 141M sentences show that our model outperforms existing methods and the SciKGs we constructed provide a good understanding of the scientific statements.
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