Active Deep Learning for Activity Recognition with Context Aware Annotator Selection
H M Sajjad Hossain and Nirmalya Roy
Machine learning models are bounded by the credibility of ground truth data used for both training and testing. Regardless of the problem domain, this ground truth annotation is objectively manual and tedious as it needs considerable amount of human intervention. With the advent of Active Learning with multiple annotators, the burden can be somewhat mitigated by actively acquiring labels of most informative data instances. However, multiple annotators with varying degrees of expertise poses new set of challenges in terms of quality of the label received and availability of the annotator. Due to limited amount of ground truth information addressing the variabilities of Activity of Daily Living (ADLs), activity recognition models using wearable and mobile devices are still not robust enough for real-world deployment. In this paper, we first propose an active learning combined deep model which updates its network parameters based on the optimization of a joint loss function. We then propose a novel annotator selection model by exploiting the relationships among the users while considering their heterogeneity with respect to their expertise, physical and spatial context. Our proposed model leverages model-free deep reinforcement learning in a partially observable environment setting to capture the action-reward interaction among multiple annotators. Our experiments in real-world settings exhibit that our active deep model converges to optimal accuracy with fewer labeled instances and achieves ~8% improvement in accuracy in fewer iterations.
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