Artificial Intelligence for Healthcare
We discuss the current and future impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies on healthcare. We consider four hierarchical levels of healthcare data generation and processing of increasing complexity and wider implications. At the imaging scanner and instrument level, AI aims at improving, simplifying, and standardizing data acquisition and preparation. We present examples of systems for AI-driven automatic patient iso-centering before a computed tomography scan, deep learning-based image reconstruction, and creation of optimized and standardized visualizations, for example, automatic rib-unfolding. At the reading and reporting levels, AI focuses on the detection and characterization of abnormalities and on automatic measurements in images. We introduce multiple AI systems for the brain, heart, lung, prostate, and musculoskeletal disease. The third level is exemplified by the integrated nature of the clinical data in a patient-specific manner. The AI algorithms at this level focus on risk prediction and stratification, as opposed to merely detecting, measuring, and quantifying images. An AI-based approach for individualizing radiation dose in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy is discussed. The digital twin is presented as a concept of individualized computational modeling of human physiology. Finally, at the cohort and population analysis levels, the focus of AI shifts from clinical decision-making to operational decisions and process optimization.
Dorin Comaniciu serves as the Senior Vice President for Artificial Intelligence and Digital Innovation at Siemens Healthineers. His scientific contributions to computational imaging and machine intelligence have translated to multiple clinical products focused on improving the quality of care, specifically in the fields of diagnostic imaging, image-guided therapy, and precision medicine. Dr. Comaniciu is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and a Top Innovator of Siemens. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention Society, and American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering. He is recipient of multiple honors, including an honorary doctorate and the IEEE Longuet-Higgins Prize for fundamental contributions to computer vision. Comaniciu is listed on Wikipedia's list of prolific inventors with 290 granted US patents on healthcare technology. He has co-authored 350 peer-reviewed publications in the areas of machine intelligence, medical imaging and precision medicine, which have received 48,000 citations with an h-index of 76. He is an advocate for technological innovation that saves and enhances lives, addressing critical issues in global health.