Incremental Mobile User Profiling: Reinforcement Learning with Spatial Knowledge Graph for Modeling Event Streams
Pengyang Wang: University of Central Florida; Kunpeng Liu: University of Central Florida; Lu Jiang: Northeast Normal University; Yanjie Fu: University of Central Florida; Xiaolin Li: Nanjing University
We study the integration of reinforcement learning and spatial knowledge graph for incremental mobile user profiling, which aims to map mobile users to dynamically-updated profile vectors by incremental learning from a mixed-user event stream. After exploring many profiling methods, we identify a new imitation based criteria to better evaluate and optimize profiling accuracy. Considering the objective of teaching an autonomous agent to imitate a mobile user to plan next-visit based on the user’s profile, the user profile is the most accurate when the agent can perfectly mimic the activity patterns of the user. We propose to formulate the problem into a reinforcement learning task, where an agent is a next-visit planner, an action is a POI that a user will visit next, and the state of environment is a fused representation of a user and spatial entities (e.g., POIs, activity types, functional zones). An event that a user takes an action to visit a POI, will change the environment, resulting into a new state of user profiles and spatial entities, which helps the agent to predict next visit more accurately. After analyzing such interactions among events, users, and spatial entities, we identify (1)semantic connectivity among spatial entities, and, thus, introduce a spatial Knowledge Graph (KG) to characterize the semantics of user visits over connected locations, activities, and zones. Besides, we identify (2) mutual influence between users and the spatial KG, and, thus, develop a mutual-updating strategy between users and the spatial KG, mixed with temporal context, to quantify the state representation that evolves over time. Along these lines, we develop a reinforcement learning framework integrated with spatial KG. The proposed framework can achieve incremental learning in multi-user profiling given a mixed-user event stream. Finally, we apply our approach to human mobility activity prediction and present extensive experiments to demonstrate improved performances.
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