Calendar Graph Neural Networks for Modeling Time Structures in Spatiotemporal User Behaviors
Daheng Wang: University of Notre Dame; Meng Jiang: University of Notre Dame; Munira Syed: University of Notre Dame; Oliver Conway: Conde Nast; Vishal Juneja: Conde Nast; Sriram Subramanian: Conde Nast; Nitesh V. Chawla: University of Notre Dame
User behavior modeling is important for industrial applications such as demographic attribute prediction, content recommendation, and target advertising. Existing methods represent behavior log as a sequence of adopted items and find sequential patterns; however, concrete location and time information in the behavior log, reflecting dynamic and periodic patterns, joint with the spatial dimension, can be useful for modeling users and predicting their characteristics. In this work, we propose a novel model based on graph neural networks for learning user representations from spatiotemporal behavior data. Our model’s architecture incorporates two networked structures. One is a tripartite network of items, sessions, and locations. The other is a hierarchical calendar network of hour, week, and weekday nodes. It first aggregates embeddings of location and items into session embeddings via the tripartite network, and then generates user embeddings from the session embeddings via the calendar structure. The user embeddings preserve spatial patterns and temporal patterns of a variety of periodicity (e.g., hourly, weekly, and weekday patterns). It adopts the attention mechanism to model complex interactions among the multiple patterns in user behaviors. Experiments on real datasets (i.e., clicks on news articles in a mobile app) show our approach outperforms strong baselines for predicting missing demographic attributes.
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