Tail labels in the multi-label learning problem undermine the low-rank assumption. Nevertheless, this problem has rarely been investigated. In addition to using the low-rank structure to depict label correlations, this paper explores and exploits an additional sparse component to handle tail labels behaving as outliers, in order to make the classical low-rank principle in multi-label learning valid. The divide-and-conquer optimization technique is employed to increase the scalability of the proposed algorithm while theoretically guaranteeing its performance. A theoretical analysis of the generalizability of the proposed algorithm suggests that it can be improved by the low-rank and sparse decomposition given tail labels. Experimental results on real-world data demonstrate the significance of investigating tail labels and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

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