Shan You (Peking University);Chang Xu (University of Technology Sydney);Chao Xu (Peking University);Dacheng Tao (University of Sydney)
Training thin deep networks following the student-teacher learning paradigm has received intensive attention because of its excellent performance. However, to the best of our knowledge, most existing work mainly considers one single teacher network. In practice, a student may access multiple teachers, and multiple teacher networks together provide comprehensive guidance that are beneficial for training the student network. In this paper, we present a method to train a thin deep network by incorporating multiple teacher networks not only in output layer by averaging the softened outputs (dark knowledge) from different networks, but also in the intermediate layers by imposing a constraint about the dissimilarity among examples. We suggest that the relative dissimilarity between intermediate representations of different examples serves as a more flexible and appropriate guidance from teacher networks. Then triplets are utilized to encourage the consistence of these relative dissimilarity relationships between the student network and teacher networks. Moreover, we leverage a voting strategy to unify multiple relative dissimilarity information provided by multiple teacher networks, which realizes their incorporation in the intermediate layers. Extensive experimental results demonstrated that our method is capable of generating a well-performed student network, with the classification accuracy comparable or even superior to all teacher networks, yet having much fewer parameters and being much faster in running.